Main Article Content

To evaluate the potential of the nematode Heterorhabditis indica as a biocontrol agent of the avocado stem weevil, Copturus aguacatae, bioassays were planned with larvae of the pest inside and outside of stems in Jiquilpan, Michoacan (Mexico). Outside of stems, second and third instars larvae were exposed to four nematode concentrations:1% (2500 nematodes mL-1), 0.1% (250 nematodes mL-1), 0.01% (25 nematodes mL-1) and 0.001% (2.5 nematodes mL-1). The optimal concentrations and the time required to kill 50% of the population (LT50) were estimated. The bioassays inside of stems included four strategies of application: “baba” (soap) of nopal, gelatin, water, and water + plastic cover. Sponge strips were soaked in a suspension of 500 nematodes mL-1  plus the corresponding treatment. Avocado stems with larvae of the pest collected in Atapan, Michoacán (Mexico) were covered with the sponges and incubated for 15 days; the study conditions were 25 ± 1 °C. The results showed high virulence of H. indica to larvae of the pest. The estimated LT50  was 28.8 h, whereas the interval required to cause 100% mortality was estimated as 44 h. The optimal concentration was 0.1% (250 nematodes mL-1) with a mortality of 93.3% ± 5.7%. However, strong limitations were detected for H. indica to penetrate and infect C. aguacatae inside of the galleries. Although there was a trend for higher mortality in treatments with respect to the control, juvenile nematodes were only recovered from the treatment water + plastic cover.

SÁNCHEZ-SAAVEDRA, M. G., CORTEZ-MADRIGAL, H., & OCHOA-ESTRADA, S. (2012). Parasitism of Copturus aguacatae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae by Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) in the laboratory. Revista Colombiana De Entomología, 38(2), 200–207. https://doi.org/10.25100/socolen.v38i2.8993

ABBAS, M. S. T. 2010. IPM of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. p. 209-233. En: Ciancio, A.; Mukerji, K. G. (eds.). Integrated management of arthropod pests and insect borne diseases. Springer. Londres-New York. 266 p.

CAMPOS-HERRERA, R.; STUART, R. J.; EL-BORAI, F.; GUTIERREZ, C.; DUNCAN, L. 2010. Entomopathogenic nematode ecology and biological control in Florida citrus orchards. p. 101-123. En: Ciancio, A.; Mukerji, K. G. (Eds.). Integrated management of arthropod pests and insect borne diseases. Springer. Londres-New York. 366 p.

CORIA, V.; PESCADOR, A.; LÓPEZ, E.; LEZAMA, R.; SALGADO, R.; LÓPEZ, M.; VIDALS, A.; MUÑOZ, J. 2007. Autoecología del barrenador de ramas del aguacate Copturus aguacate Kissinger (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en Michoacán, México. Proceedings VI World Avocado Congress. Viña del Mar, Chile. 11 p.

DOLINSKI, C.; DEL VALLE, E.; STUART, R. J. 2006. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to larvae of the guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Biological Control 38: 422-427.

EQUIHUA M., A.; ESTRADA V., E.; GONZÁLEZ H., H.; GASCA C., L.; SALINAS C., A.; GONZÁLEZ A., J.; MORA A., G.; TELIZ O., D. 2007. Plagas. pp. 135-146. En: Téliz-Ortiz, D.; Mora A., A. (Eds.). El aguacate y su manejo integrado. MundiPrensa. México. 321 p.

ENGSTRAND, R. C.; CIBRIAN T., J.; CIBRIAN-JARAMILLO, A.; KOLOKOTRONISI, S. O. 2010. Genetic variation in avocado stem weevils Copturus aguacatae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Mexico. Mitochondrial DNA 21 (S1): 38-43.

FAOSTAT. 2009. Avocados production. Disponible en: http://www. faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. [Fecha revisión: 23 noviembre 2011].

GEORGIS, R.; KOPPENHÖFER, A.; LACEY, L.; BALAIR, G.; DUNCAN, L.; GREWAL, P.; SAMISH, M.; TAN, L.; TORR, P.; TOL, R. 2006. Successes and failures in the use of parasitic nematodes for pest control. Biological Control 38: 103-123.

GIAYETTO, A. L.; CHICHÓN, L. I. 2006. Distribución, gama de huéspedes y especificidad de cinco poblaciones de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) del alto Valle de Rio Negro y Neuquén, Argentina. Revista de Investigación Agropecuaria 35 (002): 163-183.

GRIFFEN, C. T.; FINNEGAN, M. M.; DOWNES, M. J. 1994. Environmental tolerances and the dispersal of Heterorhabditis: survival and infectivity of European Heterorhabditis following prolonged immersion in seawater. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 17 (5): 415-421.

HUERTA DE LA PEÑA, A.; TRUJILLO, J.; EQUIHUA, A.; CARRILLO, J. 1990. Enemigos naturales y evaluación preliminar de dos nematodos para biocontrol de Copturus aguacatae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), en Atlixco, Puebla, México. Agrociencia 1 (3): 47-56.

INEGI. 2006. Aguacate Hass: Exportaciones Nacionales. Instituto Nacional de Estadística Geografía e Informática (INEGI). México. 3 p.

KAYA, H. K.; AGUILLERA M., M.; ALUMAI, A.; CHOO, H. Y.; DE LA TORRE, M.; FODOR, A.; GANGULY, S.; HAZAR, S.; LAKATOS, T.; PYE, A.; WILSON, M.; YAMANAKA, S.; YANG, H.; EHLERS, R. U. 2006. Status of entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria from selected countries or regions of the world. Biological Control 38: 134-155.

LACEY, L. A.; FRUTOS, R.; KAYA, H. K.; VAIL, P. 2001. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Do they have a future? Biological Control 21: 230-248.

LEWIS, E. E.; CAMPBELL, J.; GRIFFIN, C.; KAYA, H.; PETERS, A. 2006. Behavioral ecology of entomopathogenic nematodes. Biological Control 38: 66-79.

McCOY, C. W.; SHAPIRO, D. I.; DUNCAN, L. W.; NGUYEN, K.

Entomopathogenic nematodes and other natural enemies as mortality factors for larvae of Diaprepes abbreviates (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Biological Control 19: 182-190.

NOM-066-FITO-2002. 2002. Especificaciones para el manejo fitosanitario y movilización del aguacate. Disponible en: http:// www.senasica.gob.mx/?doc=696. [Fecha de revisión: 20 octubre 2011].

PIMENTEL, D.; EDWARDS, C. A. 1982. Pesticides and ecosystems. BioScience 32 (7): 595-600.

POINAR, G. O.; KARUNAKAR, G. K.; DAVID, H. 1992. Heterorhabditis indicus n. sp. (Rhabditida: Nematoda) from India: separation of Heterorhabditis spp. by infective juveniles. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 15: 467-472.

RAMOS-RODRIGUEZ, O. R.; CAMPBELL, J. F.; LEWIS, E. E.; SHAPIRO-ILAN, D. I.; RAMASWAMY, S. B. 2007. Dynamics of carbon dioxide release from insects infected with entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 94: 64-69.

ROFFAEL, E.; POBLETE, H.; TORRES, M. 2000. Über die acidität von Kern-und Splintholz der Kastanie (Castanea sativa) aus Chile. Holzals Roh-und Werkstoff 58: 120-122.

SAGARPA. 2009. Plan Rector Nacional Sistema Producto Aguacate. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación (SAGARPA). México. 43 p.

SALAZAR-GARCIA, S.; ZAMORA-CUEVAS, L.; VEGA-LOPEZ, R. 2005. Actualización sobre la Industria del Aguacate en Michoacán, México. California Avocado Society, Yearbook 87: 45-54.

SAS. 1999. SAS Software for Windows Version 4.10. SAS Institute, Cary N.C., USA.

SENASICA. 2009. Programa de trabajo de la campaña plagas cuarentenarias del aguacatero a operar con recursos del componente de sanidad e inocuidad del programa soporte. Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y CalidadAgroalimentaria (SENASICA)Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán. México. 35 p.

SHAPIRO-ILAN, D. I.; McCOY, C. W. 2000. Susceptibility of Diaprepes abbreviates (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae to different rates of entomopathogenic nematodes in the greenhouse. Florida Entomologist 83 (1): 9.

SHAPIRO-ILAN, D. I.; GOUGE, D. H.; PIGGOTT, S. J.; FIFE, J. P. 2006. Application technology and environmental considerations for use of entomopathogenic nematodes in biological control. Biological Control 38: 124-133.

SHAPIRO-ILAN, D. I.; COTTRELL, T. E.; MIZELL, R. F.; HORTON, D. L.; DAVIS, J. 2009a. A novel approach to biological control with entomopathogenic nematodes: Prophylactic control of the peach tree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa. Biological Control 48: 259-263.

SHAPIRO-ILAN, D. I.; MBATA, G. N.; NGUYEN, K. B.; PEAT, S. M.; BLACKBURN, D.; ADAMS, B. J. 2009b. Characterization of biocontrol traits in the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis georgiana (Kesha strain), and phylogenetic analysis of the nematode’s symbiotic bacteria. Biological Control 51: 377-387.

SHAPIRO-ILAN, D. I.; LEWIS, E. E.; CAMPBELL, J. F.; KIMSHAPIRO, D. B. 2012. Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical field: effects of species, magnitude of voltage, and infective juvenile age. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 109: 34-40.

STOCK, P. S.; KAYA, H. K. 1996. A multivariate analysis of morphometric characters of Heterorhabditis species (Nemata: Heterorhabditidae) and the role of morphometrics in the taxonomy of species of the genus. The Journal of Parasitology 82 (5): 806-813.

STUART, R. J.; BARBERCHECK, M. E.; GREWAL, P. S.; TAYLOR, R. A. J.; HOY, C. W. 2006. Population biology of entomopathogenic nematodes: Concepts, issues, and models. Biological Control 38: 80-102.

TALAVERA C., M.; PADILLA C., M. 2003. Reconsideraciones técnicas al ciclo biológico del barrenador de ramas del aguacate (Copturus aguacatae, Kissinger). Proceedings V World Avocado Congress. Pp. 445-448.

UNRUH, T. R.; LACEY, L. A. 2001. Control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), with Steinernema carpocapsae: Effects of supplemental wetting and pupation site on infection rate. Biological Control 20: 48-56.

WOODRING, J. L.; KAYA, H. K. 1988. Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditid nematodes: A handbook of biology and techniques. Bulletin 331. Arkansas Agriculture Experiment Station, Fayeteville, Arkansas. 28 p.