Main Article Content

Nasutitermes corniger is an arboreal termite that causes economic damage in urban areas, and its control is for chemical insecticides. An alternative for insect control is the use of entomopathogenic fungi and plant extracts, or the synergistic effect of the association of these. The toxicity of aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Agave sisalana on the biological aspects of the fungal Cordyceps  farinosa, C. fumosorosea and C. javanica and the action of the extracts and their synergistic effect on N. corniger was examined. The effect of the extracts on fungi was evaluated by germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of fungi in Sabouraud medium through the study of biological aspects under laboratory conditions; and control of N. corniger were examined, by ingestion of extracts and of the association extract plus fungus on filter paper, being the percentage of mortality of soldiers and workers of the termite daily. In general, the extracts were inoffensive to the fungi at concentrations 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg.mL-1. The extracts demonstrated termiticidal actions at concentrations tested, causing the mortalities about 100% of the workers after the third and sixth days (LC50: 0.778 to 0.803 mg.mL-1) and 100% of the soldiers between the fourth and seventh days (LC50:0.146 to 0.956 mg.mL-1). The association of the extracts with C. farinosa ESALQ1355 was more efficient in inducing the mortality in N. corniger. These results demonstrated the efficiency in vitro of the sisal extracts in controlling N. corniger termites, alone or in combination with fungi, suggesting their potential joint usefulness in the biological control of insect pests.

da Silva Lopes, R. ., Barroso Martins, . M. C. ., De Lima, G. ., Gonçalves de Oliveira, . L. ., Félix da Costa, . A. ., Dos Santos, V. F. ., Dos Santos Correia, M. T. ., Da Silva, N. H. ., Correia de Albuquerque, A. ., Áurea de Luna Alves Lima, E. ., & De Menezes Lima, V. L. . (2022). Toxicity of Agave sisalana extracts on Cordyceps and their effect and the association with fungi on Nasutitermes corniger (Isoptera: Termitidae). Revista Colombiana De Entomología, 48(2).

ALBUQUERQUE, A. C.; MATIAS, G. R. R. S.; Couto, A. V. O.; OLIVEIRA, M. A. P.; VASCONCELLOS, A. 2012. Urban termites of Recife, northeast Brazil (Isoptera).Sociobiology 59 (1): 183-188.

ALVES, S. B. 1998. Fungos Entomopatogênicos. pp. 289-370. In: Alves SB (ed.) Controle Microbiano dos Insetos. FEALQ. Piracicaba.

ALVES, S. B.; PEREIRA, R. M. 1998. Produção de fungos entomopatogênicos. pp. 845-867. In: ALVES, S. B. (Ed.) Controle Microbiano de Insetos. FEALQ. Piracicaba.

AMBETHGAR, V. 2009. Potential of entomopathogenic fungi in insecticide resistance management (IRM): A review. Journal of Biopesticides 2 (2): 177-193.

AMJAD, M.; BASHIR, M. H.; AFZAL, M.; SABRI, M. A.; JAVED, N. 2012. Effects of commercial pesticides against cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) and mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on growth and conidial germination of two species of entomopathogenic fungi. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences 10 (1): 22-27.

ARAÚJO, R. M. S.; FERREIRA, R. S.; NAPOLEÃO, T. H.; CUNHA, M. G. C.; COELHO, L. C. B. B.; CORREIA, M. T. S.; OLIVIA, M. L. V.; PAIVA, P. M. G. 2012. Crataeva tapia bark lectin is an affinity adsorbent and insecticidal agent. Plant Science 183: 20-26.

BARRETO, A. F.; ARAÚJO, E.; BONIFÁCIO, B. F. 2010. Eficiência de extratos de Agave sisalana (Perrine) sobre o ácaro rajado Tetranychus urticae (Koch) e ocorrência de fitotoxidez em plantas de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. r latifolium Hutch). Revista Brasileira de Agroecologia 5 (2): 207- 215.

BREZNAK, J.A. 1982. Intestinal microbiota of termites and other xylophagous insects. Annual Review of Microbiology 36: 323-343.

CHEN, K.; OHMURA, W.; DOI, S.; AOYAMA, M. 2004. Termite feeding deterrent from Japanese Larch wood. Bioresource Technology 95 (2): 129-134.

CHENG, S. S.; CHANG, H. T.; WU, C. L.; CHANG, S. T. 2007. Anti-termitic activities of essential oils from coniferous trees against Coptotermes formosanus. Bioresource Technology 98 (2): 456-459.

CHOUVENC, T.; SU, N. Y.; KENNETH, G. J. 2011. Fifty years of attempted biological control of termites—Analysis of a failure. Biological Control 59 (2): 69-82. 2011.06.015

CONSTANTINO, R. 2002. An illustrated key to Neotropical termite genera (Insecta: Isoptera) based primarily on soldiers. Zootaxa 67 (1): 1-40.

COSTA, M. F.; OSUNA, J. T. A; BRANDÃO, H. N.; HARAGUCHI, M.; LEDO, C. A. S. 2014. Composição química e toxicidade foliar de extratos do resíduo líquido de sisal. (Chemical composition and foliar toxicity of the extracts from the waste liquid of sisal). Magistra 26 (3): 372-384.

DEMIRCI, F.; MUSTU, M.; KAYDAN, M. B.; ÜLGENTÜRK, S. 2011. Effects of some fungicides on Isaria farinosa, and in vitro growth and infection rate on Planococcus citri. Phytoparasitica 39 (4): 353-360.

DOMSCH, K. H.; GAMS, W.; ANDERSON, T. H. 2007. Compendium of soil fungi. San IHW-Verlag. Francisco, 672 p.

HAMILTON, C.; LAY, F.; BULMER, M. S. 2011. Subterranean termite prophylactic secretions and external antifungal defenses. Journal of Insect Physiology 57 (9): 1259-1266. 2011.05.016

KANG, H. Y.; MATSUSHIMA, N.; SAMESHIMA, K.; TAKAMURA, N. 1990. Termite resistance tests of hardwoods of Kochi growth. The strong termiticidal activity of kagonoki (Litsea coreana Léveillé). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 36 (1): 78-84.

LOPES, R. S.; SVEDESE, V. M.; PORTELA, A. P. A. S.; ALBUQUERQUE, A. C.; LUNA-ALVES LIMA, E. A. 2011. Virulence and biological aspects of Isaria javanica (Frieder & Bally) Samson & Hywell-Jones in Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Arquivos do Instituto Biológico 78 (4): 565-572.

LOPES, R. S.; LIMA, G.; OLIVEIRA, L. G.; COSTA, A. F.; CORREIA, M. T. S.; LUNA-ALVES LIMA, E. A.; LIMA, V. L. M. 2016.Biological aspects Isaria species (Persoon) after infection on Sitophilus zeamaisMotschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Pesquisa Agropecuária Pernambucana 21 (1): 32-38.

LOPES, R. S.; LIMA, G.; CORREIA, M. T. S.; COSTA, A. F.; LUNA-ALVES LIMA, E. A.; LIMA, V. L. M. 2017. The potential of Isaria spp. as a bioinsecticide for the biological control of Nasutitermes corniger. Biocontrol Science and Technology 27 (9): 1038-1048.

LOPES, R. S.; OLIVEIRA, L. G.; COSTA, A.F.; CORREIA, M. T.; LUNA-ALVES LIMA, E. A.; LIMA, V. L. M. 2018. Efficacy of Libidibia ferrea var. ferrea and Agave sisalana extracts against Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). Journal of Agricultural Science 10 (4): 255-267.

MARQUES, R. P.; MONTEIRO, A. C.; PEREIRA, G. T. 2004. Crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em meios contendo diferentes concentrações do óleo Nim (Azadirachta indica). Ciência Rural 34 (6): 1675-1689.

MATSUURA, K.;& MATSUNAGA, T. 2015. Antifungal activity of a termite queen pheromone against egg-mimicking termite ball fungi. Ecological Research 30 (1): 93-100.

MELO-SANTOS, M. A. V.; ARAÚJO, A. P.; RIOS; E. M. M.; REGIS, L. 2009. Long lasting persistence of Bacillus thuingiensis larvicidal serovar. israelensis activity in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding places is associated to bacteria recycling. Biological Control 49 (2): 186-191. 2009.01.011

MELLO, A. P.; COSTA, B. G.; SILVA, A. C.; SILVA, A. M. B.; BEZERRA-GUSMÃO, M. A. 2014. Termite infestation in historical buildings and residences in the semiarid region of Brazil. Sociobiology 61 (3): 318-323.

MILANO, S. E.; FONTES, L. R. 2002. Termite pests and their control in urban Brazil. Sociobiology 40 (1): 163-177.

NUNES, F.; LEITE, J.; OLIVEIRA, L.; SOUSA, P. A. P. S.; MENEZES, M. C.; MORAES, J. P. S.; MASCARENHAS, S. R.; BRAGA, V. A.2015. The larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana against L4 larvae of Aedes aegypti is mediated by internal necrosis and inhibition of nitric oxide production. Parasitology Research 114 (2): 543-549.

OHMURA, W.; DOI, S.; AOYAMA, M. 2000. Antifeedant activity of flavonoids and related compounds against the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Journal of Wood Science 46: 149-153.

OLIVEIRA, R. L. C.; LINS-NETO, E. M. F.; ARAÚJO, E. L.; ALBUQUERQUE, U. P. 2007. Conservation priorities and population structure of woody medicinal plants in an area of Caatinga vegetation (Pernambuco State, NE Brazil). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 132 (1-3): 189-206.

POURSEYED, S. H.; TAVASSOLI, M.; BERMOUSI, I.; MARDANI, K. 2010. Metarhiziumanisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales): An effective alternative to chemical acaricides against different developmental stages of fowl tick Argas persicus (Acari: Argasidae). Veterinary Parasitology 172 (3-4): 305-310.

QUIROZ-MEDINA, C. R.; CHÁVES, D. J.; LANUZA-REYES, C. R.; MORENO-MAYORGA, L. F.; ROSALES-GONZALES, I. E. 2021. Patogenicidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em cupins em plantações de Moringa oleifera, Posoltega Nicarágua. Revista Iberoamericana de Bioeconomía y Cambio Climático 7 (14): 1741-1753.

RATH, A. C. 2000. The use of entomopathogenic fungi for control of termites. Biological Science and Technology 10 (5): 563-581.

ROSENGAUS, R. B.; LEFEBVRE, M. L.; TRANIELLO, J. F.A. 2000. Inhibitory of fungal spore germination by Nasutitermes: Evidence for a possible antiseptic role of soldier defensive secretions. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26: 21-39.

ROSSI-ZALAF, L. S.; ALVES, S. B.; LOPES, R. B.; SILVEIRA, N. S.; TANZINI, M. R. 2008. Interação de microrganismos com outros agentes de controle de pragas e doenças. pp. 279-302. In: Alves, SB, Lopes RB (Eds.), Controle Microbiano de Pragas na América latina: Avanços e Desafios. FEALQ, Piracicaba.

SABBOUR, M. M.; ABDEL-RAHMAN, A. 2013. Efficacy of isolated Nomuraearileyi and Spinosad against corn pests under laboratory and field conditions in Egypt. Annual Review & Research in Biology 3 (4): 903-912.

SAMSON, R. A., EVANS, H. C., PAUL-LATGE, J. 1988. Taxonomy of entomopathogenic fungi. In: Samson RA (ed.), Atlas of Entomopathogenic Fungi. Berlin, Springer-Verlag pp. 5-16.

SANTANA, A. L. B. D.; MARANHÃO, C. A.; SANTOS, J. C.; CUNHA, F. M.; CONCEIÇÃO,G. M. BIEBERL. W.; NASCIMENTO,M. S. 2010. Antitermitic activity of extractives from three Brazilian hardwoods against Nasutitermes corniger. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 64 (1): 7-12.

SANTOS, A. C. S.; OLIVEIRA, R. L. S.; COSTA, A. F.; TIAGO, P. V.; OLIVEIRA, N. T. 2015. Controlling Dactylopius opuntiae with Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex and extracts of Ricinus communis and Poincianella pyramidalis. Journal of Pest Science 89: 539-547.

SAS Institute. SAS user’s guide. Statistics, version 8.2, 6th ed. Cary, NC: SAS Institute. 1999-2001.

SILVA, A. P. A. P.; ALVES, R. T.; LUNA-ALVES-LIMA, E. A.; LIMA, V. L. M. 2015. Bioformulations in Pest Control – A Review. Annual Research & Review in Biology 5 (6): 535-543.

SCHEFFRAHN, R. H.; KRECEK, J.; CHASE, J. A.; MAHARAJH, B.; MANGOLD, J. R. 2006. Taxonomy, biogeography, and notes on the termites (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae) of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99 (3): 463-486.[463:TBANOT]2.0.CO;2

Software Prism. Version 6.0. California, USA: La Jolla. 2016.

SOUZA, J. D.; SILVA, M. B. R.; ARGOLO, A. C. C.; NAPOLEÃO, R. A.; SÁ, A.; CORREIA, M. T. S.; PAIVA, M. G.; SILVA, D. C.; COELHO, L. C. B. B. 2011. A new Bauhinia monandra galactose-specific lectin purified in milligram quantities from secondary roots with antifungal and termiticidal activities. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 65 (5): 696-702.

VASCONCELLOS, A.;& BANDEIRA, A. G. 2006. Populational and reproductive status of a polycalic colony of Nasutitermes corniger (Isoptera, Termitidae) in the urban area of João Pessoa, NE Brazil. Sociobiology 47 (1): 165-174.

WRIGHT, M.; LAX, A. 2013. Combined effect of microbial and chemical control agents on subterranean termites.Journal of Microbiology 51 (5): 578-58.

XU, D.; ALI, S.; HUANG, Z. 2011. Insecticidal activity influence of 20-Hydroxyecdysone on the pathogenicity of Isaria fumosorosea against Plutella xylostella. Biological Control 56 (3): 239-244.

YANAGAWA, A.; FUJIWARA-TSUJII, N.; AKINO, T.; YOSHIMURA, T.; YANAGAWA, T.; SHIMIZU, S. 2012. Odor aversion and pathogen-removal efficiency in grooming behavior of the termite Coptotermes formosanus. PLoS One 7: e47412.