Sustainable control measures of IPM of the cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae): Short-term effect of tillage system
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Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lep., Scythrididae) is a serious threat of barley and wheat in Jordan as it causes a great loss in crop. There is a growing interest in the development of innovative control strategies aiming to minimize the environmental impact of pest management and improve the safety of the agro-food chain. However, little attention has been paid on the use of cultural control methods against the pest, accordingly, this study aimed at investigating the effect of tillage system in controlling S. temperatella in Jordan. The study was conducted in Karak Governorate during the 2019-2020 cropping season with four tillage types; no-tillage, moldboard, disk and chisel plows. Furthermore, three soil depths (15, 30 and 45 cm) were evaluated for each plow type. Data on the infestation percentage, number of larvae, plant height, grain yield weight, straw biomass, and soil moisture were recorded. Results revealed that pest infestation and number of larvae were significantly the lowest in moldboard plow followed by disc plow and chisel plow, and then in no-tillage. In addition, the pest infestation and number of larvae decreased significantly with increasing plowing depth. Plant height, grain yield, straw biomass and soil moisture were significantly higher when the moldboard plow was used, followed by chisel plow, disc plow, and then no-tillage; likewise, they were increased significantly with increasing tillage depth up to 45 cm. In conclusion, it is suggested to use the conventional tillage at a depth closed to 45 cm instead of no-tillage especially when a moldboard plow used.
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