Main Article Content
Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lep., Scythrididae) is a serious threat of barley and wheat in Jordan as it causes a great loss in crop. There is a growing interest in the development of innovative control strategies aiming to minimize the environmental impact of pest management and improve the safety of the agro-food chain. However, little attention has been paid on the use of cultural control methods against the pest, accordingly, this study aimed at investigating the effect of tillage system in controlling S. temperatella in Jordan. The study was conducted in Karak Governorate during the 2019-2020 cropping season with four tillage types; no-tillage, moldboard, disk and chisel plows. Furthermore, three soil depths (15, 30 and 45 cm) were evaluated for each plow type. Data on the infestation percentage, number of larvae, plant height, grain yield weight, straw biomass, and soil moisture were recorded. Results revealed that pest infestation and number of larvae were significantly the lowest in moldboard plow followed by disc plow and chisel plow, and then in no-tillage. In addition, the pest infestation and number of larvae decreased significantly with increasing plowing depth. Plant height, grain yield, straw biomass and soil moisture were significantly higher when the moldboard plow was used, followed by chisel plow, disc plow, and then no-tillage; likewise, they were increased significantly with increasing tillage depth up to 45 cm. In conclusion, it is suggested to use the conventional tillage at a depth closed to 45 cm instead of no-tillage especially when a moldboard plow used.
Abacus Concepts. 1991. SuperAnova user’s manual. Version 1.11, Berkeley, CA.
Al-Dosary, N.M.; Al-Dobai, S.; Faleiro, J.R. 2016. Review on the management of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier in date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Emir. J. Food Agric., 28: 34-44.
Al-Issa, T.; Samarah, N. 2006. Tillage practices in wheat production under rain-fed conditions in Jordan: An economic comparison. World J. Agric. Sci., 2: 322-325.
Al-Tabbal, J.A.; Al-Fraihat, A.H. 2012. Genetic variation, heritability, phenotypic and genotypic correlation studies for yield and yield components in promising barley genotypes. J. Agric. Sci., 4: 193-201.
Al-Zyoud, F. 2007. Investigations on certain biological and ecological parameters of the cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lep., Scythrididae). Bull. Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., 58: 164-172.
Al-Zyoud, F. 2012. Effect of field history on the cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lep., Scythrididae) and its preference to different wheat and barley cultivars. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 15: 177-185.
Al-Zyoud, F. 2013. Towards integrated pest management of the cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lep., Scythrididae): Status, current and future control options. Amer.-Eur. J. Agric. Environ. Sci., 13: 1582-1594.
Al-Zyoud, F. 2014a. Adoption of integrated pest management among fruit trees’ growers in Jordan. Bull. Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., 65: 318-336.
Al-Zyoud, F. 2014b. Adoption range of integrated pest management techniques by greenhouse vegetable growers in Jordan. Jor. J. Agric. Sci., 10: 504-525.
Al-Zyoud, F. 2014c. Indiscriminate use and improper application of pesticides by Jordanian vegetable and fruit farmers. Bull. Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., 65: 344-359.
Al-Zyoud, F.; Ghabeish, I. 2015. Significance of the larval population size of the cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lep., Scythrididae) and the diapausing depth in the soil on the yield variables of wheat and barley. Jor. J. Agric. Sci., 11: 725-734.
Al-Zyoud, F.; Hassawi, D.; Ghabeish, I. 2015. Oxalic acid as an alienate factor for wheat and barley resistance to cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led., 1855 (Lep., Scythrididae). Shilap Revis. Lepidopterol., 43: 113-123.
Al-Zyoud, F.; Salameh, N.; Ghabeish, I.; Saleh, A. 2009. Susceptibility of different varieties of wheat and barley to cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lep., Scythrididae) under laboratory conditions. J. Food Agric. Environ., 7: 235-238.
Andersen, A. 1999. Plant protection in spring cereal production with reduced tillage. II. Pests and beneficial insects. Crop Prot., 18: 651-657.
Anonymous. 1996. Reference manual of the statistics program for windows Winstat. Kalmia Company Inc, Cambridge, MA, pp 267.
Blanco-Canqui, H.; Weinhold, B.; Jin, V.; Schmer, M.; Kibet, L. 2017. Long-term tillage impact on soil hydraulic properties. Soil Till. Res., 170: 38-42.
Brandenburg, D.A.; Herbert, R.L.; Sullivan, G.A.; Naderman, G.C.; Wright, S.F. 1998. The impact of tillage practices on thrips injury of peanut in North Carolina and Virgmial. Peanut Sci., 25: 27-31.
Briones, M.J.I.; Schmidt, O. 2017. Conventional tillage decreases the abundance and biomass of earthworms and alters their community structure in a global meta-analysis. Glob. Change Biol., 23: 4396-4419.
Cherry, R.; Sandhu, H. 2020. Effect of tillage practices on soil insect pests of Florida sugarcane. J. Entomol. Sci., 55: 295-299.
Curry, J.P.; Byrne, D.; Schmidt, O. 2002. Intensive cultivation can drastically reduce earthworm populations in arable land. Eur. J. Soil Biol., 38: 127-130.
De Vita, P.; Di Paolo, E.; Fecondo, G.; Di Fonzo, N.; Pisante, M. 2007. No-tillage and conventional tillage effects on durum wheat yield, grain quality and soil moisture content in southern Italy. Soil Till. Res., 92: 69-78.
El-Bouhssini, M.; Street, K.; Joubi, A.; Ibrahim, Z.; Rihawi, F. 2009. Sources of wheat resistance to sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps Put. in Syria. Evol., 56: 1065-1067.
FAO. 2018. World Food and Agriculture, Statistical Pocketbook Yearbook, Rome, Italy.
Ganassi, S.; Grazioso, P.; De Cristofaro, A.; Fiorentini, F.; Sabatini, M.A.; Evidente, A.; Altomare, C. 2016. Long chain alcohols produced by Trichoderma citrinoviride have phagodeterrent activity against the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi. Frontier Microbiol., 7: 297-310.
Ghabeish, I.H.; Al-Zyoud, F.A.; Hassawi, D.S. 2014. Quantifying key variables of damage to wheat and barley by Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lep., Scythrididae). Revis. Colomb. Entomol., 40: 176-181.
Gozuacik, C.; Erdogan, O.; Beyarslan, A. 2008. Syringopais temperatella Led. 1855 and its parasitoids in wheat and barley fields in the southeast Anatolian Region of Turkey. Phytoparasit., 36: 489-490.
Guan, D.; Zhang, Y.; Al-Kaisi, M.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, M.; Li, Z. 2015. Tillage practices effect on root distribution and water use efficiency of winter wheat under rain-fed condition in the North China Plain. Soil Till. Res., 146: 286-295.
Hosseini, J.F.; Dehyouri, S.; Mirdamadi, M. 2010. The perception of agricultural researchers about the role of nanotechnology in achieving food security. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9: 6152-6157.
Jemsi, G.; Rajabi, G. 2003. Study on harvesting agronomic measures and effect of chemical application in controlling the cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lep., Scythrididae) in Khuzestan Province. Appl. Entomol. Phytopathol., 70: 13-15.
Jordan Statistical Yearbook. 2018. Department of Statistics/Annual Agriculture Surveys. Issue no. 63, pp 276. http://www.dos.gov.jo/dos_home_a/main/cd_yb 2012/pdf/agri.pdf.
Khurshid, K.; Iqbalm, M.; Arif, M.S.; Nawaz, A. 2006. Effect of tillage and mulch on soil physical properties and growth of maize. Intern. J. Agric. Biol., 8: 593-596.
Kohler, W.; Schachtel, W.; Voleske, P. 2002. Biostatistik. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 301.
Kranthi, K.R.; Jadhav, D.R.; Wanjar, R.R.; Shaker, A.S.; Russell, D. 2001. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance in cotton upsets in India, 1995-1999. Bull. Entomol. Res., 91: 37-46.
Li, S.J.; Li, L.; Chen, F.; Zhan, H.L. 2007. Effects of conservation tillage on water use of winter wheat in North China Plain. Acta Agric. Boreali-Sinica, 22: 115-120.
Mamkagh, A.M. 2009. Effect of tillage time and plastic mulch on growth and yield of okra Abelmoschus esculentus grown under rain-fed conditions. Intern. J. Agric. Biol., 11: 453-457.
Mamkagh, A.M. 2018. Effect of tillage speed, depth, ballast weight and tire inflation pressure on the fuel consumption of the agricultural tractor: A review. J. Eng. Res. Reports, 3: 1-7.
Mamkagh, A.M. 2019. Review of fuel consumption, draft force and ground speed measurements of the agricultural tractor during tillage operations. Asian J. Adv. Res. Reports, 3: 1-9.
Manrakhan, A.; Lux, S.A. 2008. Effect of food deprivation on attractiveness of food sources containing natural and artificial sugar and protein to three African fruit flies: Ceratitis cosyeara, Ceratitis fasciventris and Ceratitis capitata. Entomol. Exp. Appl., 127: 133-143.
Marsh, T.L.; Gallardo, K. 2009. Adopting biological control for ornamental crops in greenhouses. CAB Rev., 4: 1-9.
Martinez, E.; Fuentes, J.P.; Silva, P.; Valle, S.; Acevedo, E. 2008. Soil physical properties and wheat root growth as affected by no tillage and conventional tillage systems in a Mediterranean environment of Chile. Soil Till. Res., 99: 232-244.
Meena, B.L.; Singh, A.K.; Phogat, A.B.S.; Sharma, H.B. 2013. Effects of nutrient management and planting systems on root phenology and grain yield of wheat. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 83: 627-63.
Miller, R.H.; Pike, K.S. 2017. Insects in wheat-based systems. http://www.fao.org/docrep/ 006/Y4011E/y4011e0q.htm.
Moos, J.H.; Schrader, S.; Paulsen, H.M. 2017. Reduced tillage enhances earthworm abundance and biomass in organic farming: A meta-analysis. Appl. Agric. Forest. Res., DOI: 10.3220/LBF1512114926000.
Mosaddeghi, M.R.; Mahboubi, A.A.; Safadoust, A. 2009. Short-term effects of tillage and manure on some soil physical properties and wheat root growth in a sandy loam soil in western Iran. Soil Till. Res., 104: 173-179.
Oliveira, L.J. 1997. Behavioral ecology and interactions with host plants in Phyllophaga cuyabana Moser (Col., Melolonthidae) and implications for its management in soybean cultivation. PhD Thesis, pp 148.
Oliveira, L.J.; Hoffmann, C.B. 1996. Soil tillage systems: Effect on populations of larvae of Sternechus subsignatus. In: EMBRAPA. Nat. Entomol. Soybean Res., Londrina, pp 464-468.
Oliveira, L.J.; Hoffmann, C.B.; Garcia, M.A. 2000. Effect of soil management on the white grub population and damage in soybean. Brasilia, 35: 887-894.
Rodriguez, E.; Fernandez-Anero, F.J.; Ruizand, P.; Campos, M. 2006. Soil arthropod abundance under conventional and no tillage in a Mediterranean climate. Soil Till. Res., 85: 229-233.
Schneider, F.; Don, A.; Hennings, I.; Schmittmann, O.; Seidel, S. 2017. The effect of deep tillage on crop yield – What do we really know? Soil Till. Res., 174: 193-204.
Sedighi, N.; Abbasipour, H.; Askary, H.; Gorjan, A.S.; Karimi1, J. 2013. Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. major on different stages of the sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps. J. Insect Sci., 13: 150. doi: 10.1673/031.013.15001.
Silva, M.T.B.; Klein, V.A. 1997. Effect of different soil tillage methods on the infestation and damage of Sternechus subsignatus (Boheman) in soybean. Ciencia Rural, Santa Maria, 27: 533-536.
SPSS: Statistical Product and Service Solutions INC., 1997. SIGMASTAT 2.03: SigmaStat Statistical software user's manual, Chicago, United States.
Strnad, S.P.; Bergman, M.K. 1987. Movement of first instar western corn rootworms (Col., Chrysomelidae) in soil. Environ. Entomol., 16: 975-978.
Thormann, I.; Reeves, P.; Thumm, S.; Reilley, A.; Engels, J.M.M.; Biradar, C.M.; Lohwasser, U.; Borner, A.; Pillen, K.; Richards, C.M. 2017. Changes in barley Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare genetic diversity and structure in Jordan over a period of 31 years. Plant Gen. Resour., 16: 112-126.
USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2008. Soil Quality Indicators. file:///C:/Use rs/Rana/Downloads/nrcs142p2_051591.pdf.
Van Capelle; C.; Schrader, S.; Brunotte, J. 2012. Tillage-induced changes in the functional diversity of soil biota: A review with a focus on German data. Eur. J. Soil Biol., 50: 165-181.
Van der Straten, M. 2009. National reference laboratory. Pl. Prot. Serv., NLD. http://www.tu taabsoluta.com/tuta-absoluta.
Van Leeuwen, T.; Vontas, J.; Tsagkarakou, A.; Dermauw, W.; Tirry, L. 2010. Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important acarology: A review. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol., 40: 563-572.
Wilkinson, L. 1990. SYSTAT: The system for statistics. SYSTAT Inc., Evanston, Illinois.
Zar, J. 1999. Bio-statistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, pp 663.
Zhao, L.; Hou, R.; Wu, F.; Keesstra, S. 2018. Effect of soil surface roughness on infiltration water, ponding and runoff on tilled soils under rainfall simulation experiments. Soil Till. Res., 179: 47-53.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright on their work and are responsible for the ideas expressed in them. Once a manuscript is approved for publication, authors are asked for a publication license for the term of legal protection, for all territories that allows the use, dissemination and disclosure of the same.