Main Article Content

Tetranychus urticae is a highly polyphagous mite species, with 1,140 host plant species reported worldwide. In this study, both Blechnum cordatum toxicity and repellent activity against T. urticae are reported. Regarding toxicity, the ethyl acetate fraction at 250 ppm and the n-hexane fractions at 250 ppm and 100 ppm caused the greatest accumulated mortality rate when application was made starting during the larval stage. Results showed that even at the lowest evaluated concentration (10 ppm), both fractions caused a significant decrease in the T. urticae population. The n-hexane fraction caused 100 % repellency at 50 ppm and repellency significantly superior to the control at 10 ppm. Relatively low activity was found when treatments were applied directly to adults. In addition, results suggest that the cumulative mortality could have been caused by starvation due to the observed repellency and the well-known deterrent activity of phytoecdysteroids (PEs) found in the extracts. Four PEs from the B. cordatum n-hexane fraction were isolated: ecdysone, ponasterone A, shidasterone and 2-deoxycrustecdysone.

Hincapié, C. A., Alarcón, J., Monsalve, Z. I., & Céspedes, C. L. (2020). Acaricidal activity and repellency of Blechnum cordatum (Blechnaceae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Revista Colombiana De Entomología, 45(2), e7957.

ABBOTT, W. S. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18 (2): 265-267.

AFIFY, A. E. M. M.; ALI, F. S.; TURKY, A. 2012. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and eucalyptus. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2 (1): 24-30.

ALARCÓN, J.; LAMILLA, C.; CÉSPEDES, C. L. 2013. Insecticidal activity of sesquiterpenes skeleton synthesized by the conventional Robinson annulations reaction on Drosophila melanogaster. Industrial Crops and Products 42: 268-272.

ALY, R.; RAVID, U.; ABU-NASSAR, J.; BOTNICK, I.; LEBEDEV, G.; GAL, S.; ZIADNA, H.; ACHDARI, G.; SMIROV, E.; MEIR. A.; GHANIM, M. 2011. Biological activity of natural phytoecdysteroids from Ajuga iva against the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci and the persea mite Oligonychus perseae. Pest Management Science 67 (12): 1493-1498.

ARAÚJO, M. J. C.; CÂMARA, C. A. G.; BORN, F. S.; MORAES, M. M.; BADJI, C. A. 2012. Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae. Experimental & Applied Acarology 57 (2): 139-155.

ARNAULT, C.; SLÁMA, K. 1986. Dietary effects of phytoecdysones in the leek-moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella Zell. (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 12 (10): 1979-1986.

BATHORI, M.; TOTH, N.; HUNYADI, A.; MARKI, A.; ZADOR, E. 2008. Phytoecdysteroids and anabolic-androgenic steroids - structure and effects on humans. Current Medicinal Chemistry 15 (1): 75-91.

BOYD, D. W.; ALVERSON, D. R. 2000. Repellency effects of garlic extracts on twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Journal of Entomological Science 35 (1): 86-90.

CABRERA, A. R.; DONOHUE, K. V; ROE, R. M. 2009. Regulation of female reproduction in mites: a unifying model for the Acari. Journal of Insect Physiology 55 (12): 1079-1090.

CHONG, Y. K.; GALBRAITH, M. N.; HORN, D. H. S. 1970. Isolation of deoxyecrustecdysone, deoxyecdysone, and α-ecdysone from the fern Blechnum minus. Journal of the Chemical Society D 24: 1585-1692

DĄBROWSKI, Z. T.; SEREDYŃSKA, U. 2007. Characterization of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch, Acari: Tetranychidae) response to aqueous extracts from selected plant species. Journal of Plant Protection Research 47 (2): 113-124.

DE-FU, C.; MING-XUE, S.; WEN-FU, X. 2002. Pesticidal character of phytoecdysteroids from Ajuga multiflora Bunge (Labiatae) on larvae of Cryptorrhynchus lapathi L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Forestry Research 13 (3):177-182.

DESCOINS, C. 2001. Perception de substances antiappétentes par des chenilles de lépidoptères phytophages. Anné Biologique 40: 55-73.

DESCOINS, C.; MARION-POLL, F. 1999. Electrophysiological responses of gustatory sensilla of Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) larvae to three ecdysteroids: ecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A. Journal of Insect Physiology 45 (10): 871-876.

EDWARDS, C. A.; ARANCON, N. Q.; VASKO-BENNETT, M.; ASKAR, A.; KEENEY, G. 2010. Effect of aqueous extracts from vermicomposts on attacks by cucumber beetles (Acalymna vittatum) (Fabr.) on cucumbers and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) (L.) on tomatoes. Pedobiologia 53 (2): 141-148.

GAUBE, F.; WÖLFL, S.; PUSCH, L.; WERNER, U.; KROLL, T. C.; SCHRENK, D.; HARTMANN, R. W.; HAMBURGER, M. 2008. Effects of Leuzea carthamoides on human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells determined by gene expression profiling and functional assays. Planta Medica 74 (14): 1701-1708.

GORELICK-FELDMAN, J.; MACLEAN, D.; ILIC, N.; POULEV, A.; LILA, M. A.; CHENG, D.; RASKIN, I. 2008. Phytoecdysteroids increase protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (10): 3532-3537.

HAMDEN, K.; AYADI, F.; JAMOUSSI, K.; MASMOUDI, H.; ELFEKI, A. 2008. Therapeutic effect of phytoecdysteroids rich extract from Ajuga iva on alloxan induced diabetic rats liver, kidney and pancreas. BioFactors 33 (3): 165-175.

HINCAPIÉ, C. A.; LÓPEZ, G. E.; TORRES, R. 2008. Comparison and characterization of garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs extracts and their effect on mortality and repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 68 (4): 317-327.

HINCAPIÉ, C. A.; MONSALVE, Z.; PARADA, K.; LAMILLA, C.; ALARCÓN, J.; CÉSPEDES, C. L.; SEIGLER, D. 2011. Insect growth regulatory activity of Blechnum chilense. Natural Product Communications 6 (8): 1085-1088.

HORIGANE, M.; OGIHARA, K.; NAKAJIMA, Y.; SHINODA, T.; TAYLOR, D. 2007. Cloning and expression of the ecdysteroid receptor during ecdysis and reproduction in females of the soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). Insect Molecular Biology 16 (5): 601-612.

HORIGANE, M.; OGIHARA, K.; NAKAJIMA, Y.; TAYLOR, D. 2008. Isolation and expression of the retinoid X receptor from last instar nymphs and adult females of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). General and Comparative Endocrinology 156 (2): 298-311.

IDEAM. 2014. Cartas climatológicas - Medias mensuales (Medellín). Inf Histórica Clima Clim La Princ Ciudad 2014. Disponible en: [Fecha revisión: 15 noviembre 2014].

MALAUSA, T.; SALLES, M.; MARQUET, V.; GUILLEMAUD, T.; ALLA, S.; MARION-POLL, F.; LAPCHIN, L. 2006. Within-species variability of the response to 20-hydroxyecdysone in peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Journal of Insect Physiology 52 (5): 480-486.

MANNAN, M. M.; VICTOR, B.; MARIDASS, M. 2008. A review on the potential uses of ferns. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12 (1): 281-285.

MARION-POLL, F.; DESCOINS, C. 2002. Taste detection of phytoecdysteroids in larvae of Bombyx mori, Spodoptera littoralis and Ostrinia nubilalis. Journal of Insect Physiology 48 (4): 467-476.

MIGEON, A.; DORKELD, F. 2017. Spider mites web: a comprehensive database for the Tetranychidae. Tetranychus urticae. Disponible en: [Fecha revisión: 15 enero 2017]

MIRESMAILLI, S.; ISMAN, M. B. 2006. Efficacy and persistence of rosemary oil as an acaricide against twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on greenhouse tomato. Journal of Economic Entomology 99 (6): 2015-2023.

MUÑOZ, E.; LAMILLA, C.; MARIN, J. C.; ALARCON, J.; CESPEDES, C. L. 2013. Antifeedant, insect growth regulatory and insecticidal effects of Calceolaria talcana (Calceolariaceae) on Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera frugiperda. Industrial Crops and Products 42: 137-144.

OGIHARA, K.; HORIGANE, M.; NAKAJIMA, Y.; MORIBAYASHI, A.; TAYLOR, D. 2007. Ecdysteroid hormone titer and its relationship to vitellogenesis in the soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). General and Comparative Endocrinology 150 (3): 371-380.

PAVELA, R.; STEPANYCHEVA, E.; SHCHENIKOVA, A.; CHERMENSKAYA, T.; PETROVA, M. 2016. Essential oils as prospective fumigants against Tetranychus urticae Koch. Industrial Crops and Products 94: 755-761.

PRADA, C.; ROLLERI, C. H.; PASSARELLI, L. 2008. Morfología, caracterización y distribución geográfica de Blechnum cordatum (Blechnaceae-Pteridophyta). Acta Botanica Malacitana 33: 29-46.

RAMOS, J. P.; DE LA SOTA, E. R.; GIUDICE, G. E. 2006. Blechnum cordatum (Blechnaceae): Nueva cita para la flora del Noroeste de Argentina. Boletín de La Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 41 (1-2): 91-93.

RHARRABE, K.; SAYAN, F.; LAFONT, R. 2010. Dietary effects of four phytoecdysteroids on growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Journal of Insect Science 10 (13): 1-13.

RHARRABE, K.; SAYAH, F.; MARION-POLL, F. 2011. Gustatory perception of phytoecdysteroids in Plodia interpunctella larvae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 138 (1): 33-39.

RIDDIFORD, L. M. 2012. How does juvenile hormone control insect metamorphosis and reproduction? General and Comparative Endocrinology 179 (3): 477-484.

RUSSELL, G. B.; GREENWOOD, D. R.; LANE, G. A.; BLUNT, J. W.; MUNRO, M. H. G. 1981. 2-deoxy-3-epiecdysone from the fern Blechnum vulcanicum. Phytochemistry 20: 2407-2410.

SAS INSTITUTE INC. 1999. SAS OnlineDoc®, version 8, Cary, NC, SAS Institute Inc. EE. UU.

SEIXAS, A.; FRIESEN, K. J.; KAUFMAN, W. R. 2008. Effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone and haemolymph on oogenesis in the ixodid tick Amblyomma hebraeum. Journal of Insect Physiology 54 (7): 1175-1183.

SIVIRA, A.; SANABRIA, M.; VALERA, N.; VÁSQUEZ, C. 2011. Toxicity of ethanolic extracts from Lippia origanoides and Gliricidia sepium to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae). Neotropical Entomology 40 (3): 375-379.

STATGRAPHICS TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 2013. Statgraphics Centurion XVI. The Plains, VA, EE. UU.

TAKEMOTO, T.; HIKINO, Y.; OKUYAMA, T.; ARIHARA, S.; HIKINO, H. 1968. Structure of shidasterone, a novel insect-moulting substance from Blechnum niponicum. Tetrahedron Letters 9: 6095-6098.

TAKEMOTO, T.; OKUYAMA, T.; ARIHARA, S.; HIKINO, Y.; HIKINO, H. 1969. Isolation of insect-moulting substances from Blechnum amabile and Blechnum niponicum. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 17: 1973-1974.

VAN LEEUWEN, T.; VONTAS, J.; TSAGKARAKOU, A.; DERMAUW, W.; TIRRY, L. 2010. Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important Acari: a review. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 40 (8): 563-72.

ZAPATA, N.; CEBALLOS, R.; CÉSPEDES, C.; ALARCON, J.; LEYTON, A. 2016. Actividad insecticida y reguladora del crecimiento de extractos de Blechnum chilense (Blechnaceae) y Condalia microphylla Cav. (Rhamnaceae), sobre larvas de Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas 15 (2): 77-87.